Regina Calculation Engine
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regina::NAbelianGroup Class Reference

Represents a finitely generated abelian group. More...

#include <algebra/nabeliangroup.h>

Inheritance diagram for regina::NAbelianGroup:
regina::ShareableObject regina::boost::noncopyable

Public Member Functions

 NAbelianGroup ()
 Creates a new trivial group. More...
 
 NAbelianGroup (const NAbelianGroup &cloneMe)
 Creates a clone of the given group. More...
 
 NAbelianGroup (const NMatrixInt &M, const NMatrixInt &N)
 Creates an abelian group as the homology of a chain complex. More...
 
 NAbelianGroup (const NMatrixInt &M, const NMatrixInt &N, const NLargeInteger &p)
 Creates an abelian group as the homology of a chain complex, using mod-p coefficients. More...
 
virtual ~NAbelianGroup ()
 Destroys the group. More...
 
void addRank (int extraRank=1)
 Increments the rank of the group by the given integer. More...
 
void addTorsionElement (const NLargeInteger &degree, unsigned mult=1)
 Adds the given torsion element to the group. More...
 
void addTorsionElement (unsigned long degree, unsigned mult=1)
 Adds the given torsion element to the group. More...
 
void addTorsionElements (const std::multiset< NLargeInteger > &torsion)
 Adds the given set of torsion elements to this group. More...
 
void addGroup (const NMatrixInt &presentation)
 Adds the abelian group defined by the given presentation to this group. More...
 
void addGroup (const NAbelianGroup &group)
 Adds the given abelian group to this group. More...
 
unsigned getRank () const
 Returns the rank of the group. More...
 
unsigned getTorsionRank (const NLargeInteger &degree) const
 Returns the rank in the group of the torsion term of given degree. More...
 
unsigned getTorsionRank (unsigned long degree) const
 Returns the rank in the group of the torsion term of given degree. More...
 
unsigned long getNumberOfInvariantFactors () const
 Returns the number of invariant factors that describe the torsion elements of this group. More...
 
const NLargeIntegergetInvariantFactor (unsigned long index) const
 Returns the given invariant factor describing the torsion elements of this group. More...
 
bool isTrivial () const
 Determines whether this is the trivial (zero) group. More...
 
bool isZ () const
 Determines whether this is the infinite cyclic group (Z). More...
 
bool isZn (unsigned long n) const
 Determines whether this is the non-trivial cyclic group on the given number of elements. More...
 
bool operator== (const NAbelianGroup &other) const
 Determines whether this and the given abelian group are isomorphic. More...
 
void writeXMLData (std::ostream &out) const
 Writes a chunk of XML containing this abelian group. More...
 
virtual void writeTextShort (std::ostream &out) const
 The text representation will be of the form 3 Z + 4 Z_2 + Z_120. More...
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from regina::ShareableObject
 ShareableObject ()
 Default constructor that does nothing. More...
 
virtual ~ShareableObject ()
 Default destructor that does nothing. More...
 
virtual void writeTextLong (std::ostream &out) const
 Writes this object in long text format to the given output stream. More...
 
std::string str () const
 Returns the output from writeTextShort() as a string. More...
 
std::string toString () const
 A deprecated alias for str(), which returns the output from writeTextShort() as a string. More...
 
std::string detail () const
 Returns the output from writeTextLong() as a string. More...
 
std::string toStringLong () const
 A deprecated alias for detail(), which returns the output from writeTextLong() as a string. More...
 

Protected Member Functions

void replaceTorsion (const NMatrixInt &matrix)
 Replaces the torsion elements of this group with those in the abelian group represented by the given Smith normal form presentation matrix. More...
 

Protected Attributes

unsigned rank
 The rank of the group (the number of Z components). More...
 
std::multiset< NLargeIntegerinvariantFactors
 The invariant factors d0,...,dn as described in the NAbelianGroup notes. More...
 

Detailed Description

Represents a finitely generated abelian group.

The torsion elements of the group are stored in terms of their invariant factors. For instance, Z_2+Z_3 will appear as Z_6, and Z_2+Z_2+Z_3 will appear as Z_2+Z_6.

In general the factors will appear as Z_d0+...+Z_dn, where the invariant factors di are all greater than 1 and satisfy d0|d1|...|dn. Note that this representation is unique.

Test:
Included in the test suite.
Todo:
Optimise (long-term): Look at using sparse matrices for storage of SNF and the like.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

regina::NAbelianGroup::NAbelianGroup ( )
inline

Creates a new trivial group.

regina::NAbelianGroup::NAbelianGroup ( const NAbelianGroup cloneMe)
inline

Creates a clone of the given group.

Parameters
cloneMethe group to clone.
regina::NAbelianGroup::NAbelianGroup ( const NMatrixInt M,
const NMatrixInt N 
)

Creates an abelian group as the homology of a chain complex.

Precondition
M.columns() = N.rows().
The product M*N = 0.
Parameters
Mthe `right' matrix in the chain complex; that is, the matrix that one takes the kernel of when computing homology.
Nthe `left' matrix in the chain complex; that is, the matrix that one takes the image of when computing homology.
Author
Ryan Budney
regina::NAbelianGroup::NAbelianGroup ( const NMatrixInt M,
const NMatrixInt N,
const NLargeInteger p 
)

Creates an abelian group as the homology of a chain complex, using mod-p coefficients.

Precondition
M.columns() = N.rows().
The product M*N = 0.
Parameters
Mthe `right' matrix in the chain complex; that is, the matrix that one takes the kernel of when computing homology.
Nthe `left' matrix in the chain complex; that is, the matrix that one takes the image of when computing homology.
pthe modulus, which may be any NLargeInteger. Zero is interpreted as a request for integer coefficents, which will give the same result as the NAbelianGroup(const NMatrixInt&, const NMatrixInt&) constructor.
Author
Ryan Budney
regina::NAbelianGroup::~NAbelianGroup ( )
inlinevirtual

Destroys the group.

Member Function Documentation

void regina::NAbelianGroup::addGroup ( const NMatrixInt presentation)

Adds the abelian group defined by the given presentation to this group.

Note that this routine might be slow since calculating the new invariant factors is not trivial.

Parameters
presentationa presentation matrix for the group to be added to this group, where each column represents a generator and each row a relation.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::addGroup ( const NAbelianGroup group)

Adds the given abelian group to this group.

Note that this routine might be slow since calculating the new invariant factors is not trivial.

Parameters
groupthe group to add to this one.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::addRank ( int  extraRank = 1)
inline

Increments the rank of the group by the given integer.

This integer may be positive, negative or zero.

Precondition
The current rank plus the given integer is non-negative. In other words, if we are subtracting rank then we are not trying to subtract more rank than the group actually has.
Parameters
extraRankthe extra rank to add; this defaults to 1.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::addTorsionElement ( const NLargeInteger degree,
unsigned  mult = 1 
)

Adds the given torsion element to the group.

Note that this routine might be slow since calculating the new invariant factors is not trivial. If many different torsion elements are to be added, consider using addTorsionElements() instead so the invariant factors need only be calculated once.

In this routine we add a specified number of copies of Z_d, where d is some given degree.

Precondition
The given degree is at least 2 and the given multiplicity is at least 1.
Parameters
degreed, where we are adding copies of Z_d to the torsion.
multthe multiplicity m, where we are adding precisely m copies of Z_d; this defaults to 1.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::addTorsionElement ( unsigned long  degree,
unsigned  mult = 1 
)
inline

Adds the given torsion element to the group.

Note that this routine might be slow since calculating the new invariant factors is not trivial. If many different torsion elements are to be added, consider using addTorsionElements() instead so the invariant factors need only be calculated once.

In this routine we add a specified number of copies of Z_d, where d is some given degree.

Precondition
The given degree is at least 2 and the given multiplicity is at least 1.
Parameters
degreed, where we are adding copies of Z_d to the torsion.
multthe multiplicity m, where we are adding precisely m copies of Z_d; this defaults to 1.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::addTorsionElements ( const std::multiset< NLargeInteger > &  torsion)

Adds the given set of torsion elements to this group.

Note that this routine might be slow since calculating the new invariant factors is not trivial.

The torsion elements to add are described by a list of integers k1,...,km, where we are adding Z_k1,...,Z_km. Unlike invariant factors, the ki are not required to divide each other.

Precondition
Each integer in the given list is strictly greater than 1.
Python:
This routine takes a python list as its argument.
Parameters
torsiona list containing the torsion elements to add, as described above.
const NLargeInteger& regina::NAbelianGroup::getInvariantFactor ( unsigned long  index) const

Returns the given invariant factor describing the torsion elements of this group.

See the NAbelianGroup class notes for further details.

If the invariant factors are d0|d1|...|dn, this routine will return di where i is the value of parameter index.

Parameters
indexthe index of the invariant factor to return; this must be between 0 and getNumberOfInvariantFactors()-1 inclusive.
Returns
the requested invariant factor.
unsigned long regina::NAbelianGroup::getNumberOfInvariantFactors ( ) const
inline

Returns the number of invariant factors that describe the torsion elements of this group.

See the NAbelianGroup class notes for further details.

Returns
the number of invariant factors.
unsigned regina::NAbelianGroup::getRank ( ) const
inline

Returns the rank of the group.

This is the number of included copies of Z.

Returns
the rank of the group.
unsigned regina::NAbelianGroup::getTorsionRank ( const NLargeInteger degree) const

Returns the rank in the group of the torsion term of given degree.

If the given degree is d, this routine will return the largest m for which mZ_d is a subgroup of this group.

For instance, if this group is Z_6+Z_12, the torsion term of degree 2 has rank 2 (one occurrence in Z_6 and one in Z_12), and the torsion term of degree 4 has rank 1 (one occurrence in Z_12).

Precondition
The given degree is at least 2.
Parameters
degreethe degree of the torsion term to query.
Returns
the rank in the group of the given torsion term.
unsigned regina::NAbelianGroup::getTorsionRank ( unsigned long  degree) const
inline

Returns the rank in the group of the torsion term of given degree.

If the given degree is d, this routine will return the largest m for which mZ_d is a subgroup of this group.

For instance, if this group is Z_6+Z_12, the torsion term of degree 2 has rank 2 (one occurrence in Z_6 and one in Z_12), and the torsion term of degree 4 has rank 1 (one occurrence in Z_12).

Precondition
The given degree is at least 2.
Parameters
degreethe degree of the torsion term to query.
Returns
the rank in the group of the given torsion term.
bool regina::NAbelianGroup::isTrivial ( ) const
inline

Determines whether this is the trivial (zero) group.

Returns
true if and only if this is the trivial group.
bool regina::NAbelianGroup::isZ ( ) const
inline

Determines whether this is the infinite cyclic group (Z).

Returns
true if and only if this is the infinite cyclic group.
bool regina::NAbelianGroup::isZn ( unsigned long  n) const
inline

Determines whether this is the non-trivial cyclic group on the given number of elements.

As a special case, if n = 0 then this routine will test for the infinite cyclic group (i.e., it will behave the same as isZ()). If n = 1, then this routine will test for the trivial group (i.e., it will behave the same as isTrivial()).

Parameters
nthe number of elements of the cyclic group in question.
Returns
true if and only if this is the cyclic group Z_n.
bool regina::NAbelianGroup::operator== ( const NAbelianGroup other) const
inline

Determines whether this and the given abelian group are isomorphic.

Parameters
otherthe group with which this should be compared.
Returns
true if and only if the two groups are isomorphic.
void regina::NAbelianGroup::replaceTorsion ( const NMatrixInt matrix)
protected

Replaces the torsion elements of this group with those in the abelian group represented by the given Smith normal form presentation matrix.

Any zero columns in the matrix will also be added to the rank as additional copies of Z. Note that preexisting torsion elements will be deleted, but preexisting rank will not.

Precondition
The given matrix is in Smith normal form, with the diagonal consisting of a series of positive, non-decreasing integers followed by zeroes.
Parameters
matrixa matrix containing the Smith normal form presentation matrix for the new torsion elements, where each column represents a generator and each row a relation.
virtual void regina::NAbelianGroup::writeTextShort ( std::ostream &  out) const
virtual

The text representation will be of the form 3 Z + 4 Z_2 + Z_120.

The torsion elements will be written in terms of the invariant factors of the group, as described in the NAbelianGroup notes.

Implements regina::ShareableObject.

void regina::NAbelianGroup::writeXMLData ( std::ostream &  out) const

Writes a chunk of XML containing this abelian group.

Python:
Not present.
Parameters
outthe output stream to which the XML should be written.

Member Data Documentation

std::multiset<NLargeInteger> regina::NAbelianGroup::invariantFactors
protected

The invariant factors d0,...,dn as described in the NAbelianGroup notes.

unsigned regina::NAbelianGroup::rank
protected

The rank of the group (the number of Z components).


The documentation for this class was generated from the following file:

Copyright © 1999-2013, The Regina development team
This software is released under the GNU General Public License, with some additional permissions; see the source code for details.
For further information, or to submit a bug or other problem, please contact Ben Burton (bab@debian.org).